Asturias loves pastries almost as much as it loves cheese and cider. I swear you can't throw a stone in Asturias without hitting a pastelería or a confitería or a bombonería. However, the variety can be overwhelming, and the naming scheme can be opaque at best. Hopefully this will help you suss out what kind of place you should be on the look out for.
What Kind of Pastry Do You Want?
Panadería – A bakery. A bread bakery specifically. They may have other things, but the focus is on the baking and/or selling of (usually) savory breads. This is also where you go to get you Roscon de Reyes at Christmastime. May not make the bread it sells.
Tahona – A bread bakery. Originally meant as a type of flour mill, it is now used to denote an artisanal bread bakery, or at least one with the pretension of being artisanal. Almost certainly makes the bread it sells.
Repostería – A place that sells sweets, pastries, candy, cold cuts, sausages, and drinks. A delicatessen to an American. Might not make the pastries it sells.
Pastelería – a pastry shop, more or less. Absolutely makes the pastries it sells, and will fight you if you claim differently. Should I use the "artisanal" word here? Yes, I probably should.
Bombonería – chocolate shop, more or less. Usually these tend to be small, family affairs. Occasionally one rises to great prominence based on a single creation. Usually makes the chocolates it sells.
Confitería – a candy shop, more or less. This can also sometimes be a tea room. Usually this is the sort of place you go to get a nice assortment of pastries for the office or family celebration. Usually makes the pastries it sells.
The Pastry Shops
These are my personal favorite pastry shops in Asturias. Each place on this list excels at something that I find tasty. In addition, I think they represent a realistic portrayal of pastry and chocolate making in Asturias.